Field-Programmable Gate Array - My Crypto Dictionary
FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) vs ASIC Crypto Mining ...
FPGA Mining: Field Programmable Gate Arrays Crypto Guide ...
How are FPGAs used in trading?
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is a chip that can be programmed to suit whatever purpose you want, as often as you want it and wherever you need it. FPGAs provide multiple advantages, including low latency, high throughput and energy efficiency. To fully understand what FPGAs offer, imagine a performance spectrum. At one end, you have the central processing unit (CPU), which offers a generic set of instructions that can be combined to carry out an array of different tasks. This makes a CPU extremely flexible, and its behaviour can be defined through software. However, CPUs are also slow because they have to select from the available generic instructions to complete each task. In a sense, they’re a “jack of all trades, but a master of none”. At the other end of the spectrum sit application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). These are potentially much faster because they have been built with a single task in mind, making them a “master of one trade”. This is the kind of chip people use to mine bitcoin, for example. The downside of ASICs is that they can’t be changed, and they cost time and money to develop. FPGAs offer a perfect middle ground: they can be significantly faster than a CPU and are more flexible than ASICs. FPGAs contain thousands, sometimes even millions, of so-called core logic blocks (CLBs). These blocks can be configured and combined to process any task that can be solved by a CPU. Compared with a CPU, FPGAs aren’t burdened by surplus hardware that would otherwise slow you down. They can therefore be used to carry out specific tasks quickly and effectively, and can even process several tasks simultaneously. These characteristics make them popular across a wide range of sectors, from aerospace to medical engineering and security systems, and of course finance. How are FPGAs used in the financial services sector? Speed and versatility are particularly important when buying or selling stocks and other securities. In the era of electronic trading, decisions are made in the blink of an eye. As prices change and orders come and go, companies are fed new information from exchanges and other sources via high-speed networks. This information arrives at high speeds, with time measured in nanoseconds. The sheer volume and speed of data demands a high bandwidth to process it all. Specialized trading algorithms make use of the new information in order to make trades. FPGAs provide the perfect platform to develop these applications, as they allow you to bypass non-essential software as well as generic-purpose hardware. How do market makers use FPGAs to provide liquidity? As a market maker, IMC provides liquidity to buyers and sellers of financial instruments. This requires us to price every instrument we trade and to react to the market accordingly. Valuation is a view on what the price of an asset should be, which is handled by our traders and our automated pricing algorithms. When a counterpart wants to buy or sell an asset on a trading venue, our role is to always be there and offer, or bid, a fair price for the asset. FPGAs enable us to perform this key function in the most efficient way possible. At IMC, we keep a close eye on emerging technologies that can potentially improve our business. We began working with FPGAs more than a decade ago and are constantly exploring ways to develop this evolving technology. We work in a competitive industry, so our engineers have to be on their toes to make sure we’re continuously improving. What does an FPGA engineer do? Being an FPGA engineer is all about learning and identifying new solutions to challenges as they arise. A software developer can write code in a software language and know within seconds whether it works, and so deploy it quickly. However, the code will have to go through several abstraction layers and generic hardware components. Although you can deploy the code quickly, you do not get the fastest possible outcome. As an FPGA engineer, it may take two to three hours of compilation time before you know whether your adjustment will result in the outcome you want. However, you can increase performance at the cost of more engineering time. The day-to-day challenge you face is how to make the process as efficient as possible with the given trade-offs while pushing the boundaries of the FPGA technology. Skills needed to be an FPGA engineer Things change extremely rapidly in the trading world, and agility is the name of the game. Unsurprisingly, FPGA engineers tend to enjoy a challenge. To work as an FGPA engineer at a company like IMC, you have to be a great problem-solver, a quick learner and highly adaptable. What makes IMC a great fit for an FPGA engineer? IMC offers a great team dynamic. We are a smaller company than many larger technology or finance houses, and we operate very much like a family unit. This means that, as a graduate engineer, you’ll never be far from the action, and you’ll be able to make an impact from day one. Another key difference is that you’ll get to see the final outcome of your work. If you come up with an idea, we’ll give you the chance to make it work. If it does, you’ll see the results put into practice in a matter of days, which is always a great feeling. If it doesn’t, you’ll get to find out why – so there’s an opportunity to learn and improve for next time. Ultimately, working at IMC is about having skin in the game. You’ll be entrusted with making your own decisions. And you’ll be working side by side with super smart people who are open-minded and always interested in hearing your ideas. Market making is a technology-dependent process, and we’re all in this together. Think you have what it takes to make a difference at a technology graduate at IMC?Check out our graduate opportunities page.
Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners
Thank you for inviting Horizen to the GPU mining AMA! ZEN had a great run of GPU mining that lasted well over a year, and brought lots of value to the early Zclassic miners. It is mined using Equihash protocol, and there have been ASIC miners available for the algorithm since about June of 2018. GPU mining is not really profitable for Horizen at this point in time. We’ve got a lot of miners in the Horizen community, and many GPU miners also buy ASIC miners. Happy to talk about algorithm changes, security, and any other aspect of mining in the questions below. There are also links to the Horizen website, blog post, etc. below. So, if I’m not here to ask you to mine, hold, and love ZEN, what can I offer? Notes on some of the lessons I’ve learned about maximizing mining profitability. An update on Horizen - there is life after moving on from GPU mining. As well as answering your questions during the next 7 days. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners
Author: Rolf Versluis - co-founder of Horizen
In GPU mining, just like in many of the activities involved with Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, there is both a cycle and a progression. The Bitcoin price cycle is fairly steady, and by creating a personal handbook of actions to take during the cycle, GPU miners can maximize their profitability. Maximizing profitability isn't the only aspect of GPU mining that is important, of course, but it is helpful to be able to invest in new hardware, and be able to have enough time to spend on building and maintaining the GPU miners. If it was a constant process that also involved losing money, then it wouldn't be as much fun.
For a given mining algorithm, there is definitely a technology progression. We can look back on the technology that was used to mine Bitcoin and see how it first started off as Central Processing Unit (CPU) mining, then it moved to Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) mining, then Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and then Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Throughout this evolution we have witnessed a variety of unsavory business practices that unfortunately still happen on occasion, like ASIC Miner manufacturers taking pre-orders 6 months in advance, GPU manufacturers creating commercial cards for large farms that are difficult for retail customers to secure and ASIC Miner manufacturers mining on gear for months before making it available for sale. When a new crypto-currency is created, in many cases a new mining algorithm is created also. This is important, because if an existing algorithm was used, the coin would be open to a 51% attack from day one, and may not even be able to build a valid blockchain. Because there's such a focus on profitable software, developers for GPU mining applications are usually able to write a mining application fairly rapidly, then iterate it to the limit of current GPU technology. If it looks like a promising new cryptocurrency, FPGA stream developers and ASIC Hardware Developers start working on their designs at the same time. The people who create the hashing algorithms run by the miners are usually not very familiar with the design capabilities of Hardware manufacturers. Building application-specific semiconductors is an industry that's almost 60 years old now, and FPGA’s have been around for almost 35 years. This is an industry that has very experienced engineers using advanced design and modeling tools. Promising cryptocurrencies are usually ones that are deploying new technology, or going after a big market, and who have at least a team of talented software developers. In the best case, the project has a full-stack business team involving development, project management, systems administration, marketing, sales, and leadership. This is the type of project that attracts early investment from the market, which will drive the price of the coin up significantly in the first year. For any cryptocurrency that's a worthwhile investment of time, money, and electricity for the hashing, there will be a ASIC miners developed for it. Instead of fighting this technology progression, GPU miners may be better off recognizing it as inevitable, and taking advantage of the cryptocurrency cycle to maximize GPU mining profitability instead.
Cryptocurrency Price Cycle
For quality crypto projects, in addition to the one-way technology progression of CPU -> GPU -> FPGA -> ASIC, there is an upward price progression. More importantly, there is a cryptocurrency price cycle that oscillates around an overall upgrade price progression. Plotted against time, a cycle with an upward progressions looks like a sine wave with an ever increasing average value, which is what we see so far with the Bitcoin price. Cryptocurrency price cycle and progression for miners This means mining promising new cryptocurrencies with GPU miners, holding them as the price rises, and being ready to sell a significant portion in the first year. Just about every cryptocurrency is going to have a sharp price rise at some point, whether through institutional investor interest or by being the target of a pump-and-dump operation. It’s especially likely in the first year, while the supply is low and there is not much trading volume or liquidity on exchanges. Miners need to operate in the world of government money, as well as cryptocurrency. The people who run mining businesses at some point have to start selling their mining proceeds to pay the bills, and to buy new equipment as the existing equipment becomes obsolete. Working to maximize profitability means more than just mining new cryptocurrencies, it also means learning when to sell and how to manage money.
Managing Cash for Miners
The worst thing that can happen to a business is to run out of cash. When that happens, the business usually shuts down and goes into bankruptcy. Sometimes an investor comes in and picks up the pieces, but at the point the former owners become employees. There are two sides to managing cash - one is earning it, the other is spending it, and the cryptocurrency price cycle can tell the GPU miner when it is the best time to do certain things. A market top and bottom is easy to recognize in hindsight, and harder to see when in the middle of it. Even if a miner is able to recognize the tops and bottoms, it is difficult to act when there is so much hype and positivity at the top of the cycle, and so much gloom and doom at the bottom. A decent rule of thumb for the last few cycles appears to be that at the top and bottom of the cycle BTC is 10x as expensive compared to USD as the last cycle. Newer crypto projects tend to have bigger price swings than Bitcoin, and during the rising of the pricing cycle there is the possibility that an altcoin will have a rise to 100x its starting price. Taking profits from selling altcoins during the rise is important, but so is maintaining a reserve. In order to catch a 100x move, it may be worth the risk to put some of the altcoin on an exchange and set a very high limit order. For the larger cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin it is important to set trailing sell stops on the way up, and to not buy back in for at least a month if a sell stop gets triggered. Being able to read price charts, see support and resistance areas for price, and knowing how to set sell orders are an important part of mining profitability.
Actions to Take During the Cycle
As the cycle starts to rise from the bottom, this is a good time to buy mining hardware - it will be inexpensive. Also to mine and buy altcoins, which are usually the first to see a price rise, and will have larger price increases than Bitcoin. On the rise of the cycle, this is a good time to see which altcoins are doing well from a project fundamentals standpoint, and which ones look like they are undergoing accumulation from investors. Halfway through the rise of the cycle is the time to start selling altcoins for the larger project cryptos like Bitcoin. Miners will miss some of the profit at the top of the cycle, but will not run out of cash by doing this. This is also the time to stop buying mining hardware. Don’t worry, you’ll be able to pick up that same hardware used for a fraction of the price at the next bottom. As the price nears the top of the cycle, sell enough Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to meet the following projected costs:
Mining electricity costs for the next 12 months
Planned investment into new miners for the next cycle
Additional funds needed for things like supporting a family or buying a Lambo
Taxes on all the capital gains from the sale of cryptocurrencies
It may be worth selling 70-90% of crypto holdings, maintaining a reserve in case there is second upward move caused by government bankruptcies. But selling a large part of the crypto is helpful to maintaining profitability and having enough cash reserves to make it through the bottom part of the next cycle. As the cycle has peaked and starts to decline, this is a good time to start investing in mining facilities and other infrastructure, brush up on trading skills, count your winnings, and take some vacation. At the bottom of the cycle, it is time to start buying both used and new mining equipment. The bottom can be hard to recognize. If you can continue to mine all the way through bottom part of the cryptocurrency pricing cycle, paying with the funds sold near the top, you will have a profitable and enjoyable cryptocurrency mining business. Any cryptocurrency you are able to hold onto will benefit from the price progression in the next higher cycle phase.
An Update on Horizen - formerly ZenCash
The team at Horizen recognizes the important part that GPU miners played in the early success of Zclassic and ZenCash, and there is always a welcoming attitude to any of ZEN miners, past and present. About 1 year after ZenCash launched, ASIC miners became available for the Equihash algorithm. Looking at a chart of mining difficulty over time shows when it was time for GPU miners to move to mining other cryptocurrencies. Horizen Historical Block Difficulty Graph Looking at the hashrate chart, it is straightforward to see that ASIC miners were deployed starting June 2018. It appears that there was a jump in mining hashrate in October of 2017. This may have been larger GPU farms switching over to mine Horizen, FPGA’s on the network, or early version of Equihash ASIC miners that were kept private. The team understands the importance of the cryptocurrency price cycle as it affects the funds from the Horizen treasury and the investments that can be made. 20% of each block mined is sent to the Horizen non-profit foundation for use to improve the project. Just like miners have to manage money, the team has to decide whether to spend funds when the price is high or convert it to another form in preparation for the bottom part of the cycle. During the rise and upper part of the last price cycle Horizen was working hard to maximize the value of the project through many different ways, including spending on research and development, project management, marketing, business development with exchanges and merchants, and working to create adoption in all the countries of the world. During the lower half of the cycle Horizen has reduced the team to the essentials, and worked to build a base of users, relationships with investors, exchanges, and merchants, and continue to develop the higher priority software projects. Lower priority software development, going to trade shows, and paying for business partnerships like exchanges and applications have all been completely stopped. Miners are still a very important part of the Horizen ecosystem, earning 60% of the block reward. 20% goes to node operators, with 20% to the foundation. In the summer of 2018 the consensus algorithm was modified slightly to make it much more difficult for any group of miners to perform a 51% attack on Horizen. This has so far proven effective. The team is strong, we provide monthly updates on a YouTube live stream on the first Wednesday of each month where all questions asked during the stream are addressed, and our marketing team works to develop awareness of Horizen worldwide. New wallet software was released recently, and it is the foundation application for people to use and manage their ZEN going forward. Horizen is a Proof of Work cryptocurrency, and there is no plan to change that by the current development team. If there is a security or centralization concern, there may be change to the algorithm, but that appears unlikely at this time, as the hidden chain mining penalty looks like it is effective in stopping 51% attacks. During 2019 and 2020 the Horizen team plans to release many new software updates:
Sidechains modification to main software
Sidechain Software Development Kit
Governance and Treasury application running on a sidechain
Node tracking and payments running on a sidechain
Conversion from blockchain to a Proof of Work BlockDAG using Equihash mining algorithm
Rolf Versluis is Co-Founder and Executive Advisor of the privacy oriented cryptocurrency Horizen. He also operates multiple private cryptocurrency mining facilities with hundreds of operational systems, and has a blog and YouTube channel on crypto mining called Block Operations. Rolf applies his engineering background as well as management and leadership experience from running a 60 person IT company in Atlanta and as a US Navy nuclear submarine officer operating out of Hawaii to help grow and improve the businesses in which he is involved. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thank you again for the Ask Me Anything - please do. I'll be checking the post and answering questions actively from 28 Feb to 6 Mar 2019 - Rolf
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset
Main article:Blockchain The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is provided by a blockchain. A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records), called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block, a timestamp and transaction data. By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way". For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. Blockchains solve the double-spendingproblem without the need of a trusted authority or central server), assuming no 51% attack (that has worked against several cryptocurrencies).
Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping schemes to "prove" the validity of transactions added to the blockchain ledger without the need for a trusted third party. The first timestamping scheme invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA-256 and scrypt. Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include CryptoNight, Blake), SHA-3, and X11#X11). The proof-of-stake is a method of securing a cryptocurrency network and achieving distributed consensus through requesting users to show ownership of a certain amount of currency. It is different from proof-of-work systems that run difficult hashing algorithms to validate electronic transactions. The scheme is largely dependent on the coin, and there's currently no standard form of it. Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work/proof-of-stake scheme.
📷Hashcoin mine In cryptocurrency networks, mining is a validation of transactions. For this effort, successful miners obtain new cryptocurrency as a reward. The reward decreases transaction fees by creating a complementary incentive to contribute to the processing power of the network. The rate of generating hashes, which validate any transaction, has been increased by the use of specialized machines such as FPGAs and ASICs running complex hashing algorithms like SHA-256 and Scrypt. This arms race for cheaper-yet-efficient machines has been on since the day the first cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was introduced in 2009. With more people venturing into the world of virtual currency, generating hashes for this validation has become far more complex over the years, with miners having to invest large sums of money on employing multiple high performance ASICs. Thus the value of the currency obtained for finding a hash often does not justify the amount of money spent on setting up the machines, the cooling facilities to overcome the enormous amount of heat they produce, and the electricity required to run them. Some miners pool resources, sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block). A "share" is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid partial proof-of-work. As of February 2018, the Chinese Government halted trading of virtual currency, banned initial coin offerings and shut down mining. Some Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada. One company is operating data centers for mining operations at Canadian oil and gas field sites, due to low gas prices. In June 2018, Hydro Quebec proposed to the provincial government to allocate 500 MW to crypto companies for mining. According to a February 2018 report from Fortune, Iceland has become a haven for cryptocurrency miners in part because of its cheap electricity. Prices are contained because nearly all of the country's energy comes from renewable sources, prompting more mining companies to consider opening operations in Iceland. In March 2018, a town in Upstate New York put an 18-month moratorium on all cryptocurrency mining in an effort to preserve natural resources and the "character and direction" of the city.
GPU price rise
An increase in cryptocurrency mining increased the demand of graphics cards (GPU) in 2017. Popular favorites of cryptocurrency miners such as Nvidia's GTX 1060 and GTX 1070 graphics cards, as well as AMD's RX 570 and RX 580 GPUs, doubled or tripled in price – or were out of stock. A GTX 1070 Ti which was released at a price of $450 sold for as much as $1100. Another popular card GTX 1060's 6 GB model was released at an MSRP of $250, sold for almost $500. RX 570 and RX 580 cards from AMD were out of stock for almost a year. Miners regularly buy up the entire stock of new GPU's as soon as they are available. Nvidia has asked retailers to do what they can when it comes to selling GPUs to gamers instead of miners. "Gamers come first for Nvidia," said Boris Böhles, PR manager for Nvidia in the German region.
📷An example paper printable bitcoin wallet consisting of one bitcoin address for receiving and the corresponding private key for spendingMain article:Cryptocurrency wallet A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency. With the private key, it is possible to write in the public ledger, effectively spending the associated cryptocurrency. With the public key, it is possible for others to send currency to the wallet.
Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys (or "addresses"). Thereby, bitcoin owners are not identifiable, but all transactions are publicly available in the blockchain. Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users. Additions such as Zerocoin, Zerocash and CryptoNote have been suggested, which would allow for additional anonymity and fungibility.
https://preview.redd.it/5r9soz2ltq421.jpg?width=268&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6a89685f735b53ec1573eefe08c8646970de8124 What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin is an experimental system of transfer and verification of property based on a network of peer to peer without any central authority. The initial application and the main innovation of the Bitcoin network is a system of digital currency decentralized unit of account is bitcoin. Bitcoin works with software and a protocol that allows participants to issue bitcoins and manage transactions in a collective and automatic way. As a free Protocol (open source), it also allows interoperability of software and services that use it. As a currency bitcoin is both a medium of payment and a store of value. Bitcoin is designed to self-regulate. The limited inflation of the Bitcoin system is distributed homogeneously by computing the network power, and will be limited to 21 million divisible units up to the eighth decimal place. The functioning of the Exchange is secured by a general organization that everyone can examine, because everything is public: the basic protocols, cryptographic algorithms, programs making them operational, the data of accounts and discussions of the developers. The possession of bitcoins is materialized by a sequence of numbers and letters that make up a virtual key allowing the expenditure of bitcoins associated with him on the registry. A person may hold several key compiled in a 'Bitcoin Wallet ', 'Keychain' web, software or hardware which allows access to the network in order to make transactions. Key to check the balance in bitcoins and public keys to receive payments. It contains also (often encrypted way) the private key associated with the public key. These private keys must remain secret, because their owner can spend bitcoins associated with them on the register. All support (keyrings) agrees to maintain the sequence of symbols constituting your keychain: paper, USB, memory stick, etc. With appropriate software, you can manage your assets on your computer or your phone. Bitcoin on an account, to either a holder of bitcoins in has given you, for example in Exchange for property, either go through an Exchange platform that converts conventional currencies in bitcoins, is earned by participating in the operations of collective control of the currency. The sources of Bitcoin codes have been released under an open source license MIT which allows to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the software, subject to insert a copyright notice into all copies. Bitcoin creator, Satoshi Nakamoto What is the Mining of bitcoin? Technical details : During mining, your computer performs cryptographic hashes (two successive SHA256) on what is called a header block. For each new hash, mining software uses a different random number that called Nuncio. According to the content of the block and the nonce value typically used to express the current target. This number is called the difficulty of mining. The difficulty of mining is calculated by comparing how much it is difficult to generate a block compared to the first created block. This means that a difficulty of 70000 is 70000 times more effort that it took to Satoshi Nakamoto to generate the first block. Where mining was much slower and poorly optimized. The difficulty changes each 2016 blocks. The network tries to assign the difficulty in such a way that global computing power takes exactly 14 days to generate 2016 blocks. That's why the difficulty increases along with the power of the network. Material : In the beginning, mining with a processor (CPU) was the only way to undermine bitcoins. (GPU) graphics cards have possibly replaced the CPU due to their nature, which allowed an increase between 50 x to 100 x in computing power by using less electricity by megahash compared to a CPU. Although any modern GPU can be used to make the mining, the brand AMD GPU architecture has proved to be far superior to nVidia to undermine bitcoins and the ATI Radeon HD 5870 card was the most economical for a time. For a more complete list of graphics cards and their performance, see Wiki Bitcoin: comparison of mining equipment In the same way that transition CPU to GPU, the world of mining has evolved into the use of the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) as a mining platform. Although FPGAs did not offer an increase of 50 x to 100 x speed of calculation as the transition from CPU to GPU, they offered a better energy efficiency. A typical HD/s 600 graphics card consumes about 400w of power, while a typical FPGA device can offer a rate of hash of 826 MH/s to 80w of power consumption, a gain of 5 x more calculations for the same energy power. Since energy efficiency is a key factor in the profitability of mining, it was an important step for the GPU to FPGA migration for many people. The world of the mining of bitcoin is now migrating to the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). An ASIC is a chip designed specifically to accomplish a single task. Unlike FPGAs, an ASIC is unable to be reprogrammed for other tasks. An ASIC designed to undermine bitcoins cannot and will not do anything else than to undermine bitcoins. The stiffness of an ASIC allows us to offer an increase of 100 x computing power while reducing power consumption compared to all other technologies. For example, a classic device to offer 60 GH/s (1 hashes equals 1000 Megahash. 1GH/s = 1000 Mh/s) while consuming 60w of electricity. Compared to the GPU, it is an increase in computing power of 100 x and a reduction of power consumption by a factor of 7. Unlike the generations of technologies that have preceded the ASIC, ASIC is the "end of the line" when we talk about important technology change. The CPUs have been replaced by the GPUs, themselves replaced by FPGAs that were replaced by ASICs. There is nothing that can replace the ASICs now or in the immediate future. There will be technological refinements in ASIC products, and improvements in energy efficiency, but nothing that may match increased from 50 x to 100 x the computing power or a 7 x reduction in power consumption compared with the previous technology. Which means that the energy efficiency of an ASIC device is the only important factor of all product ASIC, since the estimated lifetime of an ASIC device is superior to the entire history of the mining of bitcoin. It is conceivable that a purchased ASIC device today is still in operation in two years if the unit still offers a profitable enough economic to keep power consumption. The profitability of mining is also determined by the value of bitcoin but in all cases, more a device has a good energy efficiency, it is profitable. Software : There are two ways to make mining: by yourself or as part of a team (a pool). If you are mining for yourself, you must install the Bitcoin software and configure it to JSON-RPC (see: run Bitcoin). The other option is to join a pool. There are multiple available pools. With a pool, the profit generated by any block generated by a member of the team is split between all members of the team. The advantage of joining a team is to increase the frequency and stability of earnings (this is called reduce the variance) but gains will be lower. In the end, you will earn the same amount with the two approaches. Undermine solo allows you to receive earnings huge but very infrequent, while miner with a pool can offer you small stable and steady gains. Once you have your software configured or that you have joined a pool, the next step is to configure the mining software. The software the most populare for ASIC/FPGA/GPU currently is CGminer or a derivative designed specifically for FPGAS and ASICs, BFGMiner. If you want a quick overview of mining without install any software, try Bitcoin Plus, a Bitcoin minor running in your browser with your CPU. It is not profitable to make serious mining, but it is a good demonstration of the principle of the mining team.
There are two options for mining Bitcoin: cloud mining and hardware mining. While cloud mining has to do with mining remotely without physical mining equipment, hardware mining comes with the full package. Most people prefer to set up a Bitcoin miner as it is more profitable than cloud mining in some cases. If you want to set up your Bitcoin miner, you need to know that it is expensive and upgraded versions are made now and then. Types of Bitcoin Mining Hardware
CPU/GPU Bitcoin Miners
Although this was the first type of Bitcoin mining hardware accepted into the mainstream, it is now considered the least powerful. You’d be using the CPU of your computer to mine Bitcoins. By adding GPU hardware to your computer, you will be able to enhance the hash rate. However, the Bitcoin mining difficulty has increased so much that people can hardly make any profit for CPU/GPU mining.
FPGA Bitcoin Miners
FPGA stands for Field Programmable Gate Array. It is a circuit designed for configuration after building. This allows hardware manufacturer to buy chips in volumes and customize the chips for Bitcoin miningbefore installing them into their equipment. The performance of this hardware is far better than that of CPUs and GPUs.
ASIC Bitcoin Miners
Of the three types of Bitcoin miners, ASIC is the best. ASIC stands for Application Specific Integrated Circuits. They are designed specifically for the sole purpose of mining Bitcoins. They are extremely fast and consume relatively low power compared to the others. Although they are expensive, the miming speed of these miners is mind-blowing SEE ALSO: Will Robinhood overtake Coinbase in cryptocurrency trading (Ethereum and Bitcoin)? How does Robinhood make money? – Tue Apr 17 If you want to set up your Bitcoin mining rig, the best system for you should be the one you can afford and make a profit from. Each miner has advantages and disadvantages. You can use a mining profitability calculator to decide which hardware is best for you. Legal Disclaimer: The content of this website (smartereum.com) is intended to convey general information only. This website does not provide legal, investment, tax, etc advice. You should not treat any information on smartereum.com as a call to make any particular decision regarding cryptocurrency usage, legal matters, investments, taxes, cryptocurrency mining, exchange usage, wallet usage, initial coin offerings (ICO), etc. We strongly suggest seeking advice from your own financial, investment, tax, or legal adviser. Neither smartereum.com nor its parent companies accept responsibility for any loss, damage, or inconvenience caused as a result of reliance on information published on, or linked to, from smartereum.com. Bitcoin cloud mining
The ten-year history of the blockchain has gradually convinced world experts that this phenomenon can still become the starting point for the transformation of the entire world economy. Perhaps this is still not a revolution and the technology is far from perfect. But the main thing is that the precedent has been created and the development of alternatives in this direction is going on by leaps and bounds. The financial sphere is not the only one where the incentives are created by blockchain. A powerful infrastructure is built around it with attempts to implement technology into other spheres of human life. The production of crypto-currency, known to everyone as mining is one of such means. Cryptocurrency is the collective noun for digital currencies created on the basis of blockchain technology. For encryption, there is a special principle of cryptography, which protects information about transactions from theft and counterfeiting. Mining is the process of cryptographic calculations with a use of special equipment. For Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies, it is the only way to maintain the integrity and workability of the system. Here is a brief description of the operating principle for the newcomers. Technology creates the ability to transfer value (information) from one user to another. At the same time, the transfer of non-existent value and the transfer of one unit to several addressees are excluded. The key to this is a large number of participants in the system and the economic motivation of the miners. Once a transaction is initiated in the system, it becomes visible to all participants. This transparency is both the main feature and the advantage of blockchain. No transaction is considered committed until the information about it gets into the so-called block and will be confirmed several times – this is the function that the miners provide. For a block to be considered generated, the program must compute a hash function – a unique alphanumeric code that contains information about the previous block. Thus, the distributed database in the blockchain is a chain of blocks, each of which refers to the previous one and stores the history of all transactions that occurred since the first coin appeared. Once the block takes its place in the chain, the miner who generated it receives a cryptocurrency reward – this is how coins are issued. In addition, the miners receive a commission from each transaction. Blockchain – the technology of recording and storing information, when data is written in a continuous chain of blocks. It is based on the principle of distributed registries - information is copied and stored not on one server, but on all computers that are part of the blockchain system. Now let's take a quick look at the evolution of mining, touching only the significant events. It all began in 2008, when an unknown programmer published a document on the network describing the algorithm of the quasi-monetary tool based on the technology of the blockchain. According to the published algorithm of Satoshi Nakamoto, the author of the document, the remuneration of the miners is reduced by 50% every 210 thousand of mined blocks. At that time, each newly generated block brought 50 new coins. Now more than 477 thousand blocks have been generated, and the reward for each new one has fallen to 12.5 BTC. It is expected that by 2140 year the reward will be so small that the issue will virtually stop and the volume of bitcoins will not exceed 21 million BTC. According to the idea of the creator, this will protect the cryptocurrency from inflation. It is unknown now whether Satoshi assumed or not how quickly his offspring would grow up. Mining on PC processors, the most massive chips in the world, supposed to make Bitcoin truly decentralized and popular. But for a while it still remained only the entertainment of geeks and enthusiasts. By 2010, the both Bitcoin exchange rate and popularity had grown so much that its mining started to yield a small income. Mining began to move to commercial sphere and the rivalry triggered technological race. The Global Cryptocurrency Benchmarking Study research has shown that since Bitcoin appeared, the miners have earned more than $2 billion on mining and $14 billion on commissions from transactions. In the summer of that year, a mining farm was first launched on the GPU and the first block was mined using parallel computations. Since then, the age of industrial mining began. Having smelt the money, miners around the world rushed to buy computer graphics cards. Despite the constant increase in equipment costs and attendant maintenance problems, the mining farms continue to attract new followers even now. According to the growing complexity of the cryptocurrency mining, pools, the miner unions, began to form. For one block search, a large number of farms with a high capacity are used, and the reward is divided due to the "labor participation" in it. The power consumption of one GPU is about 200 W, the average power of a medium farm is comparable or even higher than the equipment index in the data center. The problem of energy supply, as well as the noise level and heat that the equipment produces, does not allow the creation of large farms at home. For these reasons, mining has moved to warehousing areas where there is no problem with either noise or cooling, and electricity is available at industrial tariffs. The competition in the niche of the mining farms continues to increase, bringing new profits to the component manufacturers. Farm is a data center that combines several video cards (GPUs). It shows high computing power, which allows several cryptocurrencies to be mined simultaneously. In 2011, it became obvious that GPU farms consume too much electricity, require constant attention and additional costs. Enthusiasts were searching for solutions to reduce these expenses. The third mining business development iteration led to the appearance of miners on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips. Such devices were quite expensive, but much more compact, stable and more energy efficient than the GPU farms. Energy consumption save was thousands of percent. But still, video cards remained the mass solution. Most likely the niche specialization of such machines was the impediment to their popularity. FPGA-miners did not last long and remained a niche product, which did not play a significant role in mass mining. But the developments of manufacturers of these devices were useful to ASIC-miners, which became the next generation of equipment for cryptocurrency mining. Unlike FPGAs, which are used for a variety of tasks, ASIC chips (Application Specific Integrated Cirquit) were designed to perform only one task. But they perform it much better than any farm. The difference in performance of similar devices makes tens of times. However, there is also a downside, which prevents the mass distribution of ASIC-miners - zero liquidity in the secondary market. They work according to the algorithm, which allows mining of only three cryptocurrencies known today. The production of this specific equipment lasts even now, but all producers have problems with delivery. This is indicated by the general complaints of customers at specialized forums. In the context of battered cryptocurrency rate, this factor strongly inhibits their sales. The "arms race" being an endless capacity build-up has reached the level when the most popular cryptocurrency mining is no longer economically justified. The current size of one Bitcoin block is 1 MB, which allows the system to process no more than seven transactions per second. Visa or MasterCard payment systems witness such index to reach about two thousand, with capacity expenses being several times lower. This makes the entire system clumsy and inconvenient, and increasing the commission from each transaction for the miners can ruin the Bitcoin economy, as well as any other coin economy. ASIC – processors are manufactured with a special mining-friendly architecture. Such devices have a high payback rate and are easy to maintain. Among cons are low liquidity in the secondary market and rapid ASIC outdate due to the growing complexity of the network. A complexity increase obviously cannot last forever and, sooner or later, there must be a transition to the next level. And this is the turning point where many questions may appear. What is the possible way of blockchain and mining development? This is important to understand, because an equipment worth hundreds of millions is at stake! What if it suddenly becomes useless? There are several assumptions. The first way is to reduce costs. Some hopes for this are provided by the development of alternative energy. Receiving freemium energy will reduce the cost of mining. This issue is regularly discussed on specialized forums. The creation of farms using solar, wind and geothermal power is still only at the stage of the concept. There have not been any major projects implemented. Due to the fact that the cost of equipment is still large, the entry threshold with such systems is very high, and the payback of equipment is still slow and thus risky. It is unlikely that this will become mainstream for the next five years, but the possibility of a breakthrough technology that makes renewable energy available, still exists. The second possible script is the abandonment of mining as a phenomenon. Bitcoin, which implies the efficiency of mining depending directly on the equipment productivity, uses the Proof-of-Work protocol. Some cryptocurrencies use the Proof-of-Stake protocol. They do not imply mining as a mandatory process at all. The system exists due to the circulation of cryptocurrency among users. By the way, this protocol is the one that Ethereum platform is planning to move to. This has already been stated by Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum: "When we move to the Proof-of-Stake protocol, the need for ether mining will drop sharply even at the first stage. Proof-of-Stake uses an algorithm which does not require that a large number of computers constantly make calculations. This is an algorithm where a coin is used inside the platform itself. The consensus will become much cheaper and safer. And in fact, miners can lose their business." Imagine the joy of computer gamers when suddenly the CPU prices fall dramatically! Now it is too early to speak about panic, but if the creators of other cryptocurrencies will consider this... The third way is to reduce the complexity of computation in the blockchain due to the use of alternative protocols of cryptography. Some industry enthusiasts are already working on such projects. If the complexity of the calculations goes beyond the reasonable, then why not change the operation of the system in general? So did, for example, the creators of Blockchain Ventureon. Anton Sobor, the BDM of Ventureon, claimed: "The complexity of mining is laid by the blockchain creators themselves. What are they motivated by while creating such complicated algorithms? The answer remains unclear. The complexity has inconsiderable affect on safety. Creating our project, we proceed from the personal experience of our cryptography specialists, as well as from the principle of "necessary is enough". All the functions of the blockchain are preserved, with security only increasing, and complexity decreasing prominently." It is also interesting that Ventureon mining does not require GPU. It is planned instead to create server-side mining pools, probably for easier and less expensive connection of the miners. This is likely to become a great advantage over another farms. Of course, these are not all possible ways of mining industry development, but only the most vivid and obvious directions. There is one thing to say for sure. Mining being a mass business will exist only if the rate of specific cryptocurrencies increases. And this, in turn, depends on whether the blockchain will be accepted into the world economic system, as an alternative financial tool. The attempts to regulate the circulation of cryptocurrency at the level of individual states cause a strong resonance of the crypto community. That is perfectly visible on fluctuations of the rates of the basic cryptocurrencies. But, in my opinion, it is not possible to strangle the initiative of enthusiasts completely. The point of no return has been already reached. Blockchain as a phenomenon has been proved to be effective and will develop further, influencing the society strongly. And only time will tell what its future will be.
QuarkChain Testnet 1.0 was built based on standardized blockchain system requirements, which included network, wallet, browser, and virtual machine functionalities. Other than the fact that the token was a test currency, the environment was completely compatible with the main network. By enhancing the communication efficiency and security of the network, Testnet 2.0 further improves the openness of the network. In addition, Testnet 2.0 will allow community members (other than citizens or residents of the United States) to contribute directly to the network, i.e. running a full node and mining, and receive testnet tokens as rewards. QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 will support multiple mining algorithms, including two typical algorithms: Ethash and Double SHA256, as well as QuarkChain’s unique algorithm called Qkchash – a customized ASIC-resistant, CPU mining algorithm, exclusively developed by QuarkChain. Mining is available both on the root chain and on shards due to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure. Miners can flexibly choose to mine on the root chain with higher computing power requirements or on shards based on their own computing power levels. Our Goal By allowing community members to participate in mining on Testnet 2.0, our goal is to enhance QuarkChain’s community consensus, encourage community members to participate in testing and building the QuarkChain network, and gain first-hand experience of QuarkChain’s high flexibility and usability. During this time, we hope that the community can develop a better understanding about our mining algorithms, sharding technologies, and governance structures, etc. Furthermore, this will be a more thorough challenge to QuarkChain’s design before the launch of mainnet! Thus, we sincerely invite you to join the Testnet 2.0 mining event and build QuarkChain’s infrastructure together! Today, we’re pleased to announce that we are officially providing the CPU mining demo to the public (other than citizens and residents of the United States)! Everyone can participate in our mining event, and earn tQKC, which can be exchanged to real rewards by non-U.S. persons after the launch of our mainnet. Also, we expect to upgrade our testnet over time, and expect to allow GPU mining for Ethash, and ASIC mining for Double SHA256 in the future. In addition, in the near future, a mining pool that is compatible with all mining algorithms of QuarkChain is also expected to be supported. We hope all the community members can join in with us, and work together to complete this milestone! 2 Introduction to Mining Algorithms 2.1 What is mining？ Mining is the process of generating the new blocks, in which the records of current transactions are added to the record of past transactions. Miners use software that contribute their mining power to participate in the maintenance of a blockchain. In return, they obtain a certain amount of QKC per block, which is called coinbase reward. Like many other blockchain technologies, QuarkChain adopts the most widely used Proof of Work (PoW) consensus algorithm to secure the network. A cryptographically-secure PoW is a costly and time-consuming process which is difficult to solve due to computation-intensity or memory intensity but easy for others to verify. For a block to be valid it must satisfy certain requirements and hash to a value less than the current target threshold. Reverting a block requires recreating all successor blocks and redoing the work they contain, which is costly. By running a cluster, everyone can become a miner and participate in the mining process. The mining rewards are proportional to the number of blocks mined by each individual. 2.2 Introduction to QuarkChain Algorithms and Mining setup According to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure and Boson consensus, different shards can apply different consensus and mining algorithms. As part of the Boson consensus, each shard can adjust the difficulty dynamically to increase or decrease the hash power of each shard chain. In order to fully test QuarkChain testnet 2.0, we adopt three different types of mining algorithms” Ethash, Double SHA256, and Qkchash, which is ASIC resistant and exclusively developed by QuarkChain founder Qi Zhou. These first two hash algorithms correspond to the mining algorithms dominantly conducted on the graphics processing unit (GPU) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), respectively. I. Ethash Ethash is the PoW mining algorithm for Ethereum. It is the latest version of earlier Dagger-Hashimoto. Ethash is memory intensive, which makes it require large amounts of memory space in the process of mining. The efficiency of mining is basically independent of the CPU, but directly related to memory size and bandwidth. Therefore, by design, building Ethash ASIC is relatively difficult. Currently, the Ethash mining is dominantly conducted on the GPU machines. Read more about Ethash: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethash II. Double SHA256 Double SHA256 is the PoW mining algorithms for Bitcoin. It is computational intensive hash algorithm, which uses two SHA256 iterations for the block header. If the hash result is less than the specific target, the mining is successful. ASIC machine has been developed by Bitmain to find more hashes with less electrical power usage. Read more about Double SHA256: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Block_hashing_algorithm III. Qkchash Originally, Bitcoin mining was conducted on the CPU of individual computers, with more cores and greater speed resulting in more profitability. After that, the mining process became dominated by GPU machines, then field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and finally ASIC, in a race to achieve more hash rates with less electrical power usage. Due to this arms race, it has become increasingly harder for prospective new miners to join. This raises centralization concerns because the manufacturers of the high-performance ASIC are concentrated in a small few. To solve this, after extensive research and development, QuarkChain founder Dr. Qi Zhou has developed mining algorithm — Qkchash, that is expected to be ASIC-resistant. The idea is motivated by the famous date structure orders-statistic tree. Based on this data structure, Qkchash requires to perform multiple search, insert, and delete operations in the tree, which tries to break the ASIC pipeline and makes the code execution path to be data-dependent and unpredictable besides random memory-access patterns. Thus, the mining efficiency is closely related to the CPU, which ensures the security of Boston consensus and encourges the mining decentralization. Please refer to Dr. Qi’s paper for more details: https://medium.com/quarkchain-official/order-statistics-based-hash-algorithm-e40f108563c4 2.3 Testnet 2.0 mining configuration Numbers of Shards: 8 Cluster: According to the real-time online mining node The corresponding mining algorithm is Read more about Ethash with Guardian: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/wiki/Ethash-with-Guardian) We will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners are able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the mining difficulty and rewards of different shards. GPU / ASIC mining is allowed if the public manages to get it working with the current testnet. With the upgrade of our testnet, we will further provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC software. QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure, new P2P mode, and Boson consensus algorithm are expected tobe fully tested and verified in the QuarkChain testnet 2.0. 3 Mining Guidance In order to encourage all community members to participate in QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 mining event, we have prepared three mining guidances for community members of different backgrounds. Today we are releasing the Docker Mining Tutorial first. This tutorial provides a command line configuration guide for developers and a docker image for multiple platforms, including a concise introduction of nodes and mining settings. Follow the instructions here: Quick Start with QuarkChain Mining. Next we will continue to release: A tutorial for community members who don’t have programming background. In this tutorial, we will teach how to create private QuarkChain nodes using AWS, and how to mine QKC step by step. This tutorial is expected to be released in the next few days. Programs and APIs integrated with GPU / ASIC mining. This is expected to allow existing miners to switch to QKC mining more seamlessly. Frequently Asked Questions: 1. Can I use my laptop or personal computer to mine? Yes, we will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners will be able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the work difficulty and rewards of different shards. 2. What is the minimum requirements for my laptop or personal computer to mine? Please prepare a Linux or MacOs machine with public IP address or port forwarding set up. 3. Can I mine with my GPU or an ASIC machine? For now, we will only be providing the demo implementation of CPU mining as our first step. Interested miners/developers can rewrite the corresponding GPU / ASIC mining program, according to the JSON RPC API we provided. With the upgrade of our testnet, we expect to provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC interface at a later date. 4. What is the difference among the different mining algorithms? Which one should I choose? Double SHA256 is a computational intensive algorithm, but Ethash and Qkchash are memory intensive algorithms, which have certain requirements on the computer’s memory. Since currently we only support CPU mining, the mining efficiency entirely depends on the cores and speed of CPU. 5. For testnet mining, what else should I know? First, the mining process will occupy a computer’s memory. Thus, it is recommended to use an idle computer for mining. In Testnet 2.0 settings, the target block time of root chain is 60 seconds, and the target block time of shard chain is 10 seconds. The mining is a completely random process, which will take some time and consume a certain amount of electricity. 6. What are the risks of testnet mining? Currently our testnet is still under the development stage and may not be 100% stable. Thus, there would be some risks for QuarkChain main chain forks in testnet, software upgrades and system reboots. These may cause your tQKC or block record to be lost despite our best efforts to ensure the stability and security of the testnet. For more technical questions, welcome to join our developer community on Discard: https://discord.me/quarkchain. 4 Reward Mechanism Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein, including mining, are not being offered and will not be available to any citizens or residents of the United States and certain other jurisdictions. All rewards will only be payable following the mainnet launch of QuarkChain. In order to claim or receive any of the following rewards after mainnet launch, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information about yourself. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other sanctions. NO U.S. PERSONS MAY PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0 AND QUARKCHAIN WILL STRICTLY ENFORCE THIS VIA OUR KYC PROCEDURES. IF YOU ARE A CITIZEN OR RESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DO NOT PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0. YOU WILL NOT RECEIVE ANY REWARDS FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION. 4.1 Mining Rewards
Prize Pool A total of 5 million QKC prize pool have been reserved to motivate all miners to participate in the testnet 2.0 mining event. According to the different mining algorithms, the prize pool is allocated as follows:
Total Prize Pool: 5,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Ethash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Double SHA256 Algorithm: 1,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Qkchash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC The number of QKC each miner is eligible to receive upon mainnet launch will be calculated on a pro rata basis for each mining algorithm set forth above, based on the ratio of sharded block mined by each miner to the total number of sharded block mined by all miners employing such mining algorithm in Testnet 2.0.
Early-bird Rewards To encourage more people to participate early, we will provide early bird rewards. Miners who participate in the first month (December 2018, PST) will enjoy double points. This additional point reward will be ended on December 31, 2018, 11:59pm (PST).
4.2 Bonus for Bug Submission: If you find any bugs for QuarkChain testnet, please feel free to create an issue on our Github page: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/issues, or send us an email to [email protected]. We may provide related rewards based on the importance and difficulty of the bugs. 4.3 Reward Rules: QuarkChain reserves the right to review the qualifications of the participants in this event. If any cheating behaviors were to be found, the participant will be immediately disqualified from any rewards. QuarkChain further reserves the right to update the rules of the event, to stop the event/network, or to restart the event/network in its sole discretion, including the right to interpret any rules, terms or conditions. For the latest information, please visit our official website or follow us on Telegram/Twitter. About QuarkChain QuarkChain is a flexible, scalable, and user-oriented blockchain infrastructure by applying blockchain sharding technology. It is one of the first public chains that successfully implemented state sharding technology for blockchain in the world. QuarkChain aims to deliver 100,000+ on-chain TPS. Currently, 14,000+ peak TPS has already been achieved by an early stage testnet. QuarkChain already has over 50 partners in its ecosystem. With flexibility, scalability, and usability, QuarkChain is enabling EVERYONE to enjoy blockchain technology at ANYTIME and ANYWHERE. Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein are not being and will not be offered in the United States or to any U.S. persons (as defined in Regulation S promulgated under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended) or any citizens or residents of countries subject to sanctions including the Balkans, Belarus, Burma, Cote D’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Iraq, Liberia, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, Zimbabwe, Central African Republic, Crimea, Lebanon, Libya, Somalia, South Suda, Venezuela and Yemen. QuarkChain reserves the right to terminate, suspend or prohibit participation of any user in Testnet 2.0 at any time. In order to claim or receive any rewards, including mining rewards, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in termination of your participation, forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other actions. This announcement is provided for informational purposes only and does not guarantee anyone a right to participate in or receive any rewards in connection with Testnet 2.0. Note: The use of Testnet 2.0 is subject to our terms and conditions available at: https://quarkchain.io/testnet-2-0-terms-and-conditions/ more about qurakchain: Website: https://quarkchain.io/cn/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/quarkchainofficial/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain Telegram: https://t.me/quarkchainio
FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) vs ASIC Crypto Mining Comparison. by Bitcoin Exchange Guide News Team. June 18, 2018. Home Cryptocurrency News. Facebook. Twitter. Telegram. ReddIt. Linkedin. Email. Main Difference Between FPGA and ASIC Mining. During the last years, the bitcoin mining ecosystem has been experiencing important changes. At the beginning, it was possible to mine bitcoin with ... Meaning of Field-Programmable Gate Array It is an early mining equipment which was in vogue and leading Bitcoin miner in 2010 to 2013 before it became obsolete and replaced by ASIC Miner. FPGA had upto 25GH/S mining power. Bitcoin Farm from FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) Such designs are a programmable matrix aimed at processing data at hyper speeds. Components do not take up much space, therefore, the second generation of bitcoin farms is characterized by more compact sizes. FPGAs are much more efficient than mining on GPUs and far superior to mining on ... FPGA, or a Field Programmable Gate Array, is a unique integrated type of a blank digital circuit used in various types of technology and produces higher hash rate with lower amounts of power and electricity when comparing to graphic processing unit (GPU) hardware. You can find FPGAs in image and video processing systems, for example. It’s also used for high-end cryptographic algorithm ... An FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) is an integrated circuit that has not been programmed by the manufacturer and can therefore be programmed by the customer in a different phase (“field-programmable”). FPGAs are divided in logic blocks that can be wired together in different configurations. Obviously, they tend to be slower than fixed ...
The first wave of these specialty bitcoin mining devices were easy to use Bitcoin miners were based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processors and attached to computers using a convenient ... After that, the system became dominated by multi-graphics card systems, then field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and finally application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), in the attempt to ... hello friend this video related to FPGA for any query write in comment box .,,u also send me email ([email protected]) regarding to any topic FPGA Searches related to fpga fpga basics ... Field programmable gate array (FPGA)/ VLSI design styles (in Hindi) - Duration: 7:08. StudyECE 1,547 views. 7:08. FPGA Project: Controlling a Gear DC motor with FPGA - Duration: 5:17. ... Ask Or Answer Me : https://askoranswerme.com/